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LDR Summary

Age: 18+
Time: 40 minutes
Uses: counseling, coaching, training, industrial, executive, business
Test User Qualifications:
  Level B qualifications required
  Internet scoring available
  Available in English


Leadership Development Report

Douglas N. Jackson, Ph.D.& Julie Carswell, Ph.D. © 1993, 2001

Leaders have an impact on employee productivity, turnover, and organizational morale. The Leadership Development Report (LDR) is a powerful, objective assessment that provides insight into leaders' work-oriented personality, and helps them to increase their overall effectiveness. This sophisticated expert system provides detailed advice based on the leaders' scores on 25 personality dimensions. The LDR is useful in a variety of situations. It is quick and easy to complete, and is a non-threatening assessment that facilitates interpersonal and work-related success and growth.


  • An aid to managerial and executive development and performance.
  • A foundation for management and executive counseling.
  • A pre-hire assessment for selection and placement of employment applicants.
  • A career aid for MBA and executive development program participants.
  • Adjunct to team building exercises.


Thorough Research & Development

Over 30 years of research has identified the personality dimensions that predict leadership performance. The LDR is based on and draws the best items from the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised (JPI-R) , Personality Research Form (PRF), and Survey of Work Styles (SWS). These tests are among the most widely researched personality assessments in existence - over 2000 published research articles reference one or more of these assessments. The LDR items were selected with high-performing managers and executives in mind.

Item Selection

The statements comprising the LDR were selected using complex statistical analyses, and represent the most reliable and predictive items drawn from a pool of more than 4500 statements on which the JPI-R, PRF and SWS were based. Individual test scales were validated with respect to 42 managerial performance dimensions. Careful factor and item analyses were conducted to identify the best items for the reduced set of 25 scales. The scales were then standardized with regard to a population of managers and executives.

Superior Developmental Advice

Research on each of the personality measures was carefully reviewed in relation to actual case studies to aid in the development of advice. The advice seeks to optimize leadership effectiveness given a high or low score on each of the personality dimensions. The LDR advice is not designed to change one's personality; rather, it promotes the development of strategies that allow managers and executives to work and manage more effectively, given a set of personality characteristics.

Leadership Dimensions

The following 25 LDR personality scales are aggregated into 13 Leadership Dimensions and 5 Leadership Orientations.

1. Orientation to other people
Social Confidence
Approval Seeking
2. Orientation to Work
Work Orientation
Energy Level
Risk Orientation
Social Astuteness
Job Satisfaction
Work Involvement
Time Urgency
Work Involvement
3. Temperamental Orientation
4. Accountability
Traditional Values
5. Cognitive Orientation
Openness to Experience
Intellectual Curiosity


The norms for the LDR are based on the responses of a substantial group of male and female managers and executives (N = 227) from diverse types of organizations. Ages ranged from 25 years to 65 years and older.


Good internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the three well-researched and standardized tests on which the LDR is based. For example, the Personality Research Form (PRF) has a median internal consistency reliability of .70 and median test-retest reliability of .91.


The 25 personality dimensions measured by the LDR show substantial empirical validity. They were validated by computing multiple correlations between personality and 360 degree feedback ratings for 42 leadership skill ratings. Multiple correlations ranged from .42 to .56. All were substantially significant to the .01 level. Furthermore, the PRF, JPI-R, and SWS, the measures upon which the LDR is based, have consistently displayed solid evidence of convergent and discriminant validity with self and peer ratings, as well as with numerous other measures. All measures show meaningful correlations with executive performance.


The Leadership Development Report can also be completed at SigmaTesting.Com, our exciting online testing platform that allows you instant local and remote testing and administrative access to a full range of tests and test results.


The LDR is available on SigmaTesting.Com, our comprehensive online testing platform.

LDR Manual

Enhance your leadership skills with this revolutionary tool. Uncover your managerial and executive talents. Take a step towards discovering what makes your leadership style unique and in demand.


Sample Report

Adobe Acrobat Reader required.

Slide Presentation

Improve your understanding of the LDR.

Suggested Readings

Research references related to the LDR.

Acrobat Reader

Related Items

SigmaRadius 360 Feedback

SigmaRadius was designed to optimize leadership behavior, guiding respondents toward personal career objectives.

Survey of Work Styles

The SWS is a 96 item, self-report questionnaire designed to assess 6 distinct components of Type A behavior pattern.

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